how to improve our reading skill

               How to improve your speed-reading skill foreign language becomes easy if you know the tricks and tips.Readingwill be fun. You don’t have to open your dictionary very often. Your skill will improve gradually. What you need to do you just follow the steps from practicing intensive reading and extensive reading.

 

Readingis an activity to grasps ideas from a passage or text. Reading a foreign language is not different from reading native language. It is not translating into your mother language. You need to read full sentence to catch the idea of the sentence. You can use your dictionary to read a foreign language but using it very often will interrupt your thought. How to improve speed-reading skill a foreign language as quickly as reading your native language becomes the focus on this passage.

There are two methods of reading skill a foreign language. These two methods have correlation. The first is intensive reading. It is slow and careful reading. You need to note the difficult words and structures. You also need to reproduce your understanding on your own. You can in turn use construction in your speaking or writing to imitate the vocabulary, sentence structures and phrases you obtain in your reading. You cannot apply intensive reading technique in quick and fluent reading but this technique helps you develop the ability to improve your speed-reading skill foreign language.

The second is extensive reading. This is rapid and fluent reading. You have to practice the technique by reading easy materials and familiar topics.  Your goal is not to learn vocabularies, sentence structures and phrases but to understand the idea of a passage or a text. Your basic skill in intensive reading will speed up your improvement in developing your skill. You are expected to understand the idea of foreign language texts as quickly as to understand your native language.

You may face hard problems to improve speed-reading skill foreign language. Most people have difficulties in understanding vocabularies, structures. In general, non-native language learners have basic vocabularies of some three thousand words.  (Language and life in The USA, Gladys G. Doty, Janet Ross, Happer and Row, Publishers, New York, 1968).  To help you overcome these obstacles you should practice reading materials designed for foreign students.  You will be stressful of you read time magazine articles while you are a beginner.

Learning vocabularies is not difficult. You should have a dictionary. When you are learning English language, you can use American College dictionary, Websters dictionary or Longman dictionary.  You do not need to look up your dictionary too often but you note the difficult words and continue reading until you finish the sentence or paragraph. You connect the idea with the difficult words. If you still find problems, you can open your dictionary.

You may have some problems to understand sentence structures. You have to mark your difficult spots then reread the selection until you understand the meaning. You do not need to spend too much time on the problems as long as you do not lose you’re the idea of a paragraph you can skip and finish your reading until the last sentence. When you think that it is important, you can reread the difficult sentence structures. You have to practice to improve your reading skill and you will not realize that your skill is getting better after that.

These are some steps of reading for fluency for beginners. I hope these tips will be useful for you.

  1. Mark the difficult vocabularies and sentences. You do not have to spend too much time in finding the meaning of a word. You can continue reading until you finished the paragraph. You can reread if you need.
  2. Go back to the difficult words and sentences. You will know the meaning of the words or sentences after you finished reading. You get the meaning from the correlation of the whole idea of the text. You will find the difficult words or sentences become clear after all.
  3. Reread the difficult words and structures. You may not get the meaning of the words at fist. You can get the meaning when you reread them. If you still find difficulties in understanding the meaning, you can look up your dictionary or you grammar books. Take a note, write down the case and keep it. You need to open your note someday.

 

Practicing reading foreign language will help you improve speed-reading foreign language. You should start from easy materials to ones that are more difficult. You can also practice with your friends or lectures to improve your reading skill. Your friends or lectures will help you every time you find difficult words and structures. The best of all to improve your reading skills you always practice because practice makes perfect.

Benefit of outdoor games for children

Children like playing games. They enjoy playing out with their playmates. Outdoor games are good for them. Children who like playing out will get much benefit from outdoor activities. You as parents must give opportunity for your children to play out because they will be fun and happy to run, walk, jump and do other physical activities.

Outdoor games are good for your children. Your children will be active. They also do some exercise while they are playing. Outdoor games need and use much energy because your children sometime run, hide, and crawl on the ground. Hide and seek is one of interesting games for children. They will get much fun playing this game.

Your children use much energy to do outdoor games. Every country has different traditional games. Traditional games usually have education purpose besides having fun. You no need to prohibit your children do some physical activities while they are playing traditional games.

Here some benefit of doing outdoor games for your children.

  1. Your children do exercise while playing. They walk, run , jump, hide and do some physical activities. Their movement will burn their calories. It is like doing sport and exercise.
  2. Your children learn how to be sportive. In playing games, they sometime lose and win. It is a common situation for them. They will not be stressful even though they lose the game. Being a winner doesn’t make them arrogant and have over power of others. They will be sportive whether they win or lose.
  3. Your children can make friend better. An outdoor or traditional game usually needs many children to play. Your children have much chance to socialize with their peers. This is a great moment to make friend. Your children will get along with others easily at other moments and community because they are accustomed to deal with many people.
  4. Your children learn how to overcome problems. A traditional or outdoor game sometime needs your children to think smartly and quickly. In this situation, your children will learn how to cope a problem. They will learn how to escape from difficult situation while playing. It is great mental exercise for them to overcome stressful and difficult condition.

As parents and educators, we need to facilitate our children to grow better mentally and physically. We expect our children be a stable and reliable personality. We just need to keep an eye on them if there is something that threatens them while they are playing out. We have to make sure the game is secure, save and have value of education for our beloved boys or girls.

How to make children like reading

           Readingis a mental and physical activity. It seems doing nothing but it needs muc energy. Most children prefer watching TV to reading.Readingis a boring activity for them. They sometime say that it is a serious activity and not much fun. However, reading cab be fun and has much benefit for some other children.

 

            Some people have a bad perception of reading. They think people who like reading are serious, unfriendly and not sociable. This is not true. Few people that like reading coincidently are serious. You as parents must break the perception, wrap it in a plastic bag and throw it into a trashcan. You need to build image that reading is fun. Tell your children that they will not lose their friends because they like reading!

 

           Readinghelps children develop their intelligence. Children who like reading have more knowledge than others. They have new horizon of thought. On the other hands, you must choose a fine book for them. Good, qualified and suitable reading materials for your children can stimulate the way they think. The more they read the more input they get.

 

           Readingis a hobby. You need to serve many books to your children to make them love reading. Colorful books and interesting pictures or stories attract your children attention. When you children are interested in reading and continue their habit, it means they have a new hobby. That is reading.

 

            Your children still have energetic personality even though they like reading. You can manage their time. You don’t have to draw them from their friends and playmates. You can let them bring their favorite books and share with their friends while they are playing out. You can make your children still have opportunity to play some games and outdoor activities.

 

            In the end, reading is a fun activity for your children. You should build that image to your children. You should grow the seed of image to your children and their friends. You don’t have to worry to make your children like reading. You need to supply many qualified books. The last, you must let your children play out to get along with their playmates.

stages children language development

Children acquire language from their mothers or caregivers. How they acquire language will be the focus of this essay. I use the word “acquire” I do not use the word “learn”. New born children can not speak any languages. They only cry and coo to express their feeling. When their mothers or caregivers talk to them they listen, distinguish the voice then they store all those sounds and voice in their brain. This is not a learning process but this is an acquiring process. Children will acquire all words addressed to them. Those words, types of syntaxes and intonations will be the foundation to their language competence in the future.

While mothers are holding and talking to their children, the children listen and store the entire mothers’ utterance. The mothers’ intonation, syntaxes, and accent will be copied. It is going to be language patterns for the children. When the children grow up and they are ready to speak they will use those language patterns in their spoken language. Language acquisition process can be divided into some stages. Each stage has different language competence. The older children are the better their language competence. Here are some stages and competences.

Beginning 0, 0 to 0, 2 months old, children can response to human voice, mainly their mothers’. After 0, 2 months old they usually reduce crying and cooing to hear noise and sound.

 

In normal situation they can distinguish between noise and human voice even they can recognize their mothers’ voice (Sanger 1955) (Tampubolon, 1933. Mengembangkan Minat dan Kebiasaan Membaca pada Anak, Bandung, Angkasa).

 

There are three utterances on children at the age 0, 0 to 0, 5 years old. They are crying, cooing and babbling. Crying is the most used expression before they reach 0, 3 months old but they have produce cooing. Crying is considered as training to articulation organs to prepare producing words. When children are at the age 0, 4 to 0, 5 months old they like babbling. They produce words like “ Ba-ba”  and “ ah-ah”. Their voice has intonation at this stage. Their voice has not had any meaning because the voice looks like sound. Children will be more responsive until they reach 1,0 year old but they still use babbling , cooing and less crying to convey their emotion.

Children can say one word at the age 1,0 to 2,0 years old but the period between 1,0 to 2,0 years old is not fixed. The period varies among children. At this stage children can speak one word like ‘Mama’ to call their mom. The word represents a simple syntax. When children say “Mama”, it can mean that they say “Mama is here “. One word has a sentence pattern behind the utterance. I have a year old baby. She often says “ Pee-pee”. I know she is going to say ‘ I am pee”. Environment and people have strong influence in this language development process at this stage.

 

Children can speak two or three words between 1,6 to 2,6 years old  Lenneberg (1967)( Tampubolon, 1933. Mengembangkan Minat dan Kebiasaan Membaca pada Anak, Bandung, Angkasa) .

 

However, this competence is not standard to all children. There is no specific time mentioned from many researchers. Prof. Dr. Tampubolon Medan (1911) followed his grand children language development. He recorded that competence of saying two or three words was 1,0 – 2,0 or 2, 0 – 3,0 years old. The development at this period has been built at the previous period. Children can utter two or three words. Their achievement shows that children have acquired types of syntaxes even though children’s utterances are not clear due to the immature of articulation organs.

The ability to say full sentences takes place from 3,0 to 6,0  years old. It means that children can say simple sentences. They can say “This is book” or “I want milk”. The development of language competence grows continuously. Children can produce more complex sentences. They have used prefixes and suffixes to speak.

 

When children enter kindergarten at the age 4,0 or 5,0 they have skill to transform all language syntaxes Menyuk (1971) .( Tampubolon, 1933. Mengembangkan Minat dan Kebiasaan Membaca pada Anak, Bandung, Angkasa)

  

Finally, Verbal and visual stimulations are very important aspects that influence language development on children. Language acquisition process on children start from 0,0 to 3,0 years old. After these periods, the language develops and extends to reach the ideal patterns. Parents, caregivers and educators should know these stages and periods so that they will be the best figures to be duplicated.

 

Bibliography

Fauzi Ahmad, 2003. Children Language Development, The Faculty of Letters and Culture , “ Yogyakarta “ University of Technology.

 

DSAK, Soetjiningsih,1955. Tumbuh Kembang Anak, Bali, Universtas Udayana.

 

Tampubolon, 1933. Mengembangkan Minat dan Kebiasaan Membaca pada Anak, Bandung, Angkasa